A urologist is a medical doctor that works in the field of medicine called Urology, which is concerned with urine, urinary health, and treating problems that may arise anywhere along the urinary tract. Additionally, urologists continuously research new and better ways to treat problems of the urinary tract. In addition to the urinary tract, a urologist also specializes in the male reproductive organs. A urologist with advanced qualifications in surgery may be a fellow of the American College of Surgeons (FACS).

Due to the variety of the possible urinary problems, a urologist typically has a sub-specialization. He or she often specializes in pediatric urology, urologic oncology , renal (surgery) transplantation, urinary tract and kidney stones, female urology, neurology, or erectile dysfunction (impotence) or other types of male infertility.

Urologists must typically graduate from approved medical schools and complete an ACGME accredited urology residency program. Before becoming a urologist, a student must spend a year in general surgery, 3 years in clinical urology, and a minimum of 6 months in general surgery, urology, or a clinical discipline relevant to urology. The final year of training must be spent as a senior/chief resident.

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