Oliguria - decreased production of urine output typically less than 400 mL/day in adults, and can be one of the early signs of renal failure and other urology problems or blockages within the urinary tract. It is treatable with right diagnosis and treatment. Oliguria can be a precursor to Anuria which is the absence of urine production or extremely little urine.
If the low urine output is not chronic, the commonly suspected oliguria causes are simple dehydration which can come from diarrhea, vomiting, poor diet, being overly active and not getting enough fluids, and other lifestyle considerations which can be easily altered and the low urine output restored to normal levels of urine production. In case of chronic oliguria, other urological problems are suspected. While that may be a sign of something else going wrong, the oliguria is more likely caused by food infections or bacteria rather than kidney problems which tend to be more severe. Dehydration-induced oliguria tends to be solvable by changes in diet and lifestyle.
If dehydration is not the cause of your oliguria, urinary tract obstruction, such as may result from an enlarged prostate, or other types of urinary tract inflammation and blockage can be the cause of reduced urine flow. kidney damage or inflammation is usually suspected in chronic oliguria.If you are taking medications that are harmful to the kidneys like chemotherapy, immunosuppressant drugs, or certain antibiotics, tell your doctor about your decreased urine production.
An important factor to consider is that in cases of organ problems, kidney failure alone is treatable and the patients usually survive with the help of medical procedures. In cases of multiple-organ failure, as is often the case with the older population who experience renal failure, the survival rate is about only 1 in 5 people. Kidney failure is a common complication of Diabetes, which is a rising phenomenon throughout the developed world.
While old age and poor overall health are factors that increase the chances of experiencing oliguria and the further problems of which the oliguria may be symptomatic, race or sex are not considered factors which lower or increase the risk of oliguria.
Oliguria symptoms are obviously decreased urine production. Accompanying symptoms may be vomiting, fever or diarrhea, dizziness, lightheadedness, or rapid pulse.
Oliguria is difficult to diagnose visually because the symptoms of decreased urine production are accompanied by other common problems like amber colored or dark urine and in case the kidneys are becoming less effective at getting rid of waste, oliguria patients tend to experience symptoms like bloating, and weakness. Diarrhea tends to occur from parasite infections, so if you are experiencing diarrhea and dehydration, the oliguria may be a sign of a food or parasite infection. If you are experiencing painful urination, or blood during urination, then blockage of the urinary tract may be the cause.
Oliguria may result from 3 broad pathophysiologic processes:
If the cause of reduced urine is not from dehydration or lifestyle issues, quite commonly kidney failure is suspected. In case the reduced urine is a precursor of kidney failure, at onset, oliguria is frequently acute. Oliguria is often one of the early signs of kidney failure. Renal failure has other symptoms than oliguria, and low pee output isn't always the first symptom. In addition, the degree of oliguria depends on hydration and concomitant use diuretics which are drugs that increase urination frequency.
If diagnosed early, in most cases the oliguria is reversible and there are plenty of treatment options. In case it is allowed to go on for a long time, the complications can result in kidney failure, which presents a much greater and more difficult problem for the patients, and often severely decreases life expectancy of the patient.
To correctly diagnosed Oliguria, the doctor typically asks for a medical history of renal (kidney) problems and ask when the urine decrease began and how persistent it has been.
Urinalysis (urine test) is the most common test for Oliguria and can show levels of protein and dead white and red cells in the urine, possibly finding kidney or bladder infections, or kidney inflammation (glomerulonephritis).
Other tests for oliguria can include taking urine cultures, special blood x-rays, ultrasounds to test kidney mass, CT-scans, blood tests, and a number of other tests, mostly depending on what the doctor suspects to be causing oliguria.Treatment for oliguria depends on the findings of the tests. Sometimes a catheter is placed in the urinary bladder to relieve an obstruction and to assist with careful measurement of urine output. If there is a problem with the kidneys themselves, dialysis may be needed. In most cases, oliguria is 100% treatable and reversible.