There can be a number of disorders and problems with the bladder which show themselves in a number of symptoms.
There are a number of ways to diagnose bladder problems. To make a correct diagnosis, you must consult with a urologist and do a number of tests. You really want to make sure the root problem is properly diagnosed before you begin treatment because it is a terrible experience to be treating a particular problem only to find out later that your actual problem had gone untreated and was possibly allowed to become worse.
Common urine tests (urinalysis) are urine sample tests where you pee in a cup. If you have a bladder infection, your urine will contain germs and maybe pus that can be seen with a microscope. The doctor can treat an infection by giving you antibiotics. If your urine is germ-free for weeks or months, but you still have bladder pain, the doctor may decide that you have IC/PBS. Another type of test is the urine dipstick test.
Another type of bladder test is the cystoscope test. In this test, the cystoscope is guided gently up the urethra and into the bladder. It has a camera and the doctor (urologist) can then see inside your bladder.
Treatments vary from person to person. The simplest treatment is to improve diet and lifestyle for better bladder health and retraining. It includes adding exercise, possible physical therapy, and possible medicine. Over time you will have to learn which foods and liquids give you trouble, and avoid that. Antacid medicine may help reduce the acid from ingesting liquids and foods, and may help decrease irritation along the urinary tract.